29 janvier 2016


It is usually believed that the "strong interaction" is a fundamental force although its fundamental equation has never been discovered, even after one century after the discovery of the electric Rutherford scattering. The best known formula of this mysterious force is that of Yukawa, a combination of an ersatz of Coulomb's law  and an exponential: It is attractive with 2 empirical parameters. The negative sign of the potential is wrong. The problem is that the nuclear physicists know from the electromagnetic interaction only... [Lire la suite]

11 novembre 2015

Nuclear models

It is known since one century that nuclear energy is of the order of one million times more concentrated, in the same mass, than chemical energy.The radius of the atomic nucleus is, indeed, of the order of one million times smaller than that of a molecule. This is because the chemical and nuclear binding energies are of the same electric nature : they obey both to the Coulomb's laws, in 1/r where r is the radius of either a nucleus or a molecule. No need of a mysterious "strong force". According to Einstein, the energy of an... [Lire la suite]
15 octobre 2015

Groningen and Bobeszko

Presentation at Groningen:    My calculation of the deuteron 2H binding energy has been verified by A. Bobeszko: There are some restrictions: "The internucleon distance is much less than experimentally estimated." The separation distances r and a are not internucleon distances, not considered here. They separate pointlike electric charges and magnetic moments. A single horizontal inflection point is obtained by adjusting the parameter a. The corresponding potential coincides with the experimental binding energy... [Lire la suite]
30 septembre 2015

Two or 4 Forces of Nature ?

It is usually believed that there exists four forces like the four musketeers: gravitation, electromagnetic, strong, weak. The first two forces, gravitation and electrostatic are known since  two centuries. The electric force is in 1/r²  and 1/r for the potential. Similarly, The magnetic force in 1/r⁴ and its potential in 1/r³. The strong and weak forces remain hypothetical: their fundamental laws are ignored. The strong force, varies, depending of the taste of the scientist, from 10, 137 to 1000 times... [Lire la suite]
30 septembre 2015

Forces between nucleons according to Evans

Citations of R.D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969, Chater 10 and 11, are in quotation marks. Comments in italics. Chapter 10 Forces between nucleons 1. General Characteristics of Specifically Nuclear Forces a. Comparison of Atomic and Nuclear Forces "no predominant central particle" : the nucleus has no nucleus like the atom The forces have a very short range of action: the measurement of the range of action is undefined, unlike the radioactive decay period.  "In order to... [Lire la suite]
30 septembre 2015

I didn't know it was impossible

My theory of the electromagnetic origin of the nuclear interaction has been published in an american journal under the title "Electromagnetic Theory of the Binding Energy of the Hydrogen Isotopes", Journal of Fusion Energy (2011) 30 :377-381. Ma presentation in Glasgow is easier. Official objections of the french Académie des Sciences (December 5, 2008):  "1) Pourquoi les spins ne s'orienteraient-ils pas de façon à ce que l'énergie soit négative, dont attractive?" It is the Bieler hypothesis in... [Lire la suite]
30 septembre 2015


The physical nature of the nuclear interaction has been discovered to be electromagnetic. The atomic nucleus was discovered by Rutherford, explaining electrically nuclear scattering, with a slope -2 in log-log coordinates. For high kinetic energies, the slope is -6, magnetic: The Rutherford scattering is electromagnetic. Details here: Rutherford NUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY IS ELECTROMAGNETICA proton attracts a not so neutral neutron as a rubbed plastic pen attracts small pieces of paper. Quantitatively, one has to use the exact... [Lire la suite]
30 septembre 2015

My presentation at Groningen

"The strong nuclear force is one of the four fundamental forces in nature; the other three are gravity, electromagnetism and the weak force. As its name implies, the strong force is the strongest force of the four. It is responsible for binding together the fundamental particles of matter to form larger particles." According to Wikipedia, "The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between protons and neutrons, subatomic particles that are collectively called nucleons.... [Lire la suite]